APA Style uses brief citations within the text of a paper when referring to a source. The brief citation gives the author(s) and year of the source in parentheses, allowing readers to locate the full citation in your reference list at the end of your paper.
Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003)
Kessler (2003) found that early onset results in a more persistent and severe course
When reproducing a direct quote, include the specific page number(s). You are encouraged to include page numbers when paraphrasing.
Svanum and Aigner (2011) found "students who did well were prone to view the course more positively" (p. 676).
"students who did well were prone to view the course more positively" (Svanum & Aigner, 2011, p.676)
No page numbers? Many online sources do not have page numbers. For direct quotes, use a paragraph number, or cite the heading and the number of paragraphs following it.
(Basu & Jones, 2007, para. 4)
(Verbunt, Pernot, & Smeets, 2008, Discussion section, para. 1)
No author? Use the first few words of the title instead. Within parentheses, use quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page; Italicize the name of a journal, newspaper, magazine, or book.
("Study Finds", 2007)
(College Bound Seniors, 2008, pp. 42-3)
For more information on citing sources within your paper, see pp. 174-79 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.
The following are examples of the most commonly used sources. For examples not given here, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Capitalization: In your reference list, only capitalize the first letter of all words in periodical titles. For other titles (i.e. books, articles, or Web pages) capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle, and proper nouns.
Journal Article (print):
For articles with up to and including 7 authors*, include the names of all authors.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages.
Kozma, A., & Stones, M. J. (1983). Re-validation of the Memorial University of Newfoundland scale of happiness.
Canadian Journal on Aging, 2(1), 27-29.
*For information on citing multiple authors in the text of your paper, see Table 6.1 "Basic Citation Styles" on p. 177 of the APA Manual.
Journal Article (8 or more authors):
Use ellipses after the name of the sixth author, and then list the last author named.
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004).
Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more
severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco
Research, 6, 249-67.
Journal Article (online):
Provide the doi number (Digital Object Identifier).
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Fuller, D. (2002). Critical friendships: Reading women's writing communities in Newfoundland. Women's Studies
International Forum, 25(2), 247-260. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(02)00234-0
Journal Article (online, no doi):
Provide URL of journal's homepage only if doi is not available. Do not include Article Index information.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages. Retrieved from
http://journal homepage address
Martin, R. (2001). Educational psychology in Newfoundland and Labrador: A thirty-year history. Canadian Journal of
School Psychology, 16(2), 5-17. Retrieved from: http://cjs.sagepub.com/
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Magazine Article (online, no doi):
Provide URL of magazine's homepage only if doi is not available. Omit page numbers for online magazine articles.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of Magazine. Retrieved from
http://magazine homepage address
Capps, R. (2012, October 19). Why things fail: From tires to helicopter blades, everything breaks
eventually. Wired. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/
Newspaper Article (print):
When referencing a newspaper article, p. (single page) or pp. (multiple pages) precedes the page numbers.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. page number(s).
Sullivan, D. D. (2000, November 15). Teens say they're battling depression, peer pressure: 'You kind of drift apart
from your parents,' one high school student says. The Telegram, p. 17.
Newspaper Article (online, no doi):
Provide URL of newspaper's homepage only if doi is not available. Omit page numbers for online newspaper articles.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
http://newspaper homepage address
Hurley, C. (2009, October 24). Suzuki encourages Newfoundlanders to join the world in demonstration on climate
change. The Western Star. Retrieved from http://www.thewesternstar.com/
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Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
For location, give city name & and state/province abbreviation. Outside North America, spell out city & country names.
Grenfell, W. T. (1919). A Labrador doctor: The autobiography of Wilfred Thomason Grenfell. Boston, MA: Houghton
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Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Moorcroft, W. H. (2005). Understanding sleep and dreaming. doi:10.1007/0-387-28698-5
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://URL
Holland, N. N. (1982). Laughing: A psychology of humor. Retrieved from
State the editor(s) instead of author, followed by (Ed.) or, for multiple editors (Eds.).
Wright, M. J., & Myers, C. R. (Eds.). (1983). History of academic psychology in Canada. Toronto, Canada: Hogrefe and Huber.
Article in an Edited Book
Article Author. (Year). Title of article. In Editor's name (Ed.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Location: Publisher.
Einar, V. K. (2007). Screening of eating disorders in the general population. In P. M. Goldfarb (Ed.), Psychological
tests and testing research trends (pp. 141-50). New York, NY: Nova Science.
Edition of a Book, other than the 1st
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book (x ed.). Location: Publisher.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV
(4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Volume of a Book
If it is an edition other than the 1st, include the edition immediately before the volume number.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book (x ed., Vol. x). Location: Publisher.
Eisenberg, N. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of child psychology (6th ed., Vol. 3). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. (A.A. Translator, Trans.). Location: Publisher. (Original work published xxxx).
Freud, S. (1960). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious. (J. Strachey, Trans.). London, England: Routledge
& K. Paul. (Original work published 1905).
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If no author is available, begin entry with the title. If no publication date is available, use (n.d.) for "no date".
Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of web page/document. Retrieved from http://URL to specific page
Rose, C. (2012, November 12). How to write citations and bibliographies in APA style. Retrieved from
Newfoundland and Labrador Environment Network. (2011, October 7). Voting for the environment: Environment Network releases
review of party policies. Retrieved from http://www.nlen.ca/issues/forests/voting-for-the-environment-environment-network-releases
Newfoundland government rejects environmental impact statement for nickel plant. (2008, November 28). Retrieved from
Instructor, I. I. (Year, Month day). Title of lecture. Class lecture for course, University, Location.
Buckle, J. (2011, October 7). Bereavement. Class lecture for PSYC 3040: Contemporary issues in death and dying,
Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL.
Class Notes on Course Website (D2L or My Grenfell):
Provide the file format in brackets after the title (e.g. PDF, PowerPoint slides, Word document).
Instructor, I. I. (Year, Month day). Title [File type]. Retrieved from: URL
Fowler, K. (2010, September 20). Memory and cognition [PDF]. Retrieved from
Dwyer, S. C. (2011, February 4). PSYC 1001: Introduction to psychology [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
Instructor, I. I. (Year). Title of coursepack. Coursepack, University, Location.
Warren, K. (2012). PSYC 2025: Survey of developmental psychology. Coursepack, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University
of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL.
Author, A. A. (if available). (Year). Title of entry. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of dictionary/encyclopedia (p. page number).
Facial expression. (2007). In G.R. VandenBos (Ed.), APA dictionary of psychology (pp. 362-3). Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
Provide the doi number (Digital Object Identifier) or a URL. Only use a URL if the doi is not available. If there are no page numbers, the entry title is sufficient.
Author, A. A. (if available). (Year). Title of entry. In B.B. Editor (Ed.), Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. (p. page number).
doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from http://URL
Roesch, S. (2006). Coping mechanisms. In Y. K. Jackson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Retrieved from
Dissertation or Thesis (Print):
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis). University, Location.
Broderick, E. M. (2007). Assessment of grief and loss services in western Newfoundland (Honours dissertation).
Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL.
Dissertation or Thesis (Online):
If accessed through an Article Index, include the name of the database, and give the accession or order number in parentheses at the end of the entry. If accessed on the internet, include the URL link.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis). Available from
Name of Database. (accession or order number)
Rusch, L. C. (2010). Depression stigma reduction: The impact of models of depression on stigma and treatment seeking
(Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest dissertation and theses database. (Document ID 1865749061)
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Government Document, Canadian (Print):
Only indicate jurisdiction (i.e. Country, Province, or City) if it's not apparent elsewhere in the citation. If the author is also the publisher, use "Author" to indicate publisher.
Jurisdiction. Government Department/Organization/Committee. (Year, Month day). Title of document or report (Report no. xxx).
Newfoundland and Labrador. Community Services Council. (2008). Research papers on people, partners, and prosperity: A strategic plan
for Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, NL: Author.
Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2012). Regulated nurses: Canadian trends, 2006 to 2010. Ottawa, ON: Author.
Government Document, Canadian (Internet):
"For documents retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author" (section 7.03).
Center for Science in the Earth System. (2007, September). Preparing for climate change: A guidebook for local, regional, and
state governments. Retrieved from Newfoundland and Labrador Environment and Conservation website:
Newfoundland and Labrador. Health and Community Services. (2005, November). Newfoundland and Labrador
gambling prevalence study. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.nl.ca/health/publications/
Personal communications (e.g. interviews, letters, emails) are not included in the reference list. Cite in-text only.
(J. A. Smith, personal communication, May 29, 2005)
Producer, A. A. (Producer/s), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country
of origin: Studio.
Bender, L., Burns, S. Z., & David, L. (Producers), & Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Motion picture].
United States: Paramount.
Didn't find the example you needed? Check out the following guides for more specific information or for citing other types of sources:
Memorial University Libraries Youtube videos on APA Style
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
(Available at the library in Reference and on Reserve: Call # BF 76.7 A46 2010)
American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
(Available at the library in Reference and on Reserve: Call # BF 76.7 C66 2010)