How to Write Citations and Bibliographies in MLA Style (7th Edition) | PDF

Citations  | Works Cited List (Bibliography)  | Useful Guides

Citations within your paper

MLA Style uses brief citations within the text of a paper immediately after a quote, a reference to a source, or a paraphrase. The brief citation gives the author and page number of the source you are referring to, allowing readers to locate the full citation in your Works Cited list.

Examples:  
  Pythagoras invented the monochord (Smith 182).
  Smith believed that Pythagoras invented the monochord (182).

In both examples, the complete information about the work by Smith would appear in the Works Cited list after Smith's name. If you cite more than one work published by Smith, you would distinguish the works by including a shortened version of the title: e.g. (Smith, Survey 182).

Works Cited List (Bibliography)

Books  | Articles  | Websites  | Other

The following are examples of the most commonly used sources. For examples not given here, refer to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

MLA Style requires that you indicate the "medium" of publication, such as: Print, Web, CD, MP3 file, Audiocassette, DVD, Videocassette, E-mail, or Microform. For more examples see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

If any required information is not available, MLA Style requires that you use special abbreviations to indicate that the information is unavailable
(n.p. - no publisher, n.d. - no publication date, n.pag. - no page number).

Click here for a sample MLA Style Works Cited list.

BOOKS

Book with One Author:
Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason. Adrift on an Ice Pan. St. John's: Creative, 1992. Print.

Book with More Than One Author:
Katona, Steven K., Valerie Rough, and David T. Richardson. A Field Guide to the Whales, Porpoises, and Seals from Cape Cod to
     Newfoundland. 4th ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. Print.

Book with More Than Three Authors:
Storey, Keith, et al. Family Life Impacts of Offshore Oil and Gas Employment. St. John's: Memorial University of
     Newfoundland, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1989. Print.

Edited Book:
State the editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed." for one editor, or "eds." for multiple editors.

Kelly, Ursula, and Elizabeth Yeoman, eds. Despite this Loss: Essays on Culture, Memory and Identity in Newfoundland and
     Labrador
. St. John's, NL: Iser Books, 2010. Print.

Edited Book (Editor in Addition to Author):
When editors' names follow the title, only use "Ed." (not "Eds.") as it refers to "Edited by".

Seary, Edgar Ronald. Place Names of the Northern Peninsula. Ed. Robert Hollett and William J. Kirwin. St. John's:
     Memorial University of Newfoundland, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 2000. Print.

Chapter/Article in an Edited Book:
Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Chapter/Article." Title of Book. Ed. Editor Firstname Lastname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.
     Pages. Medium.

Handcock, W. Gordon. "English Migration to Newfoundland." Peopling of Newfoundland: Essays in Historical Geography.
     Ed. John J. Mannion. St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland, Institute of Social and Economic Research,
     1977. 15-48. Print.

Translated Book
After the title, add "Trans." followed by the translator's Firstname Lastname.

Carrier, Roch. La Guerre, Yes Sir!. Trans. Sheila Fischman. Toronto: Anansi, 1970. Print.

E-Book:
Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of Database or Website. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Hubbard, Jennifer Mary. A Science on the Scales: The Rise of Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Biology, 1898-1939. Toronto:
     University of Toronto Press, 2006. ebrary. Web. 9 Apr. 2009.

Tocque, Philip. Newfoundland: As It Was, And As It Is In 1877. Toronto: John B. Magurn, 1878. Google Book Search.
     Web. 9 Apr. 2009.

Edition of a Book (other than the first):
Add the number of the edition after the title, and after the name of any editor(s), translator(s), or compilers(s).

Butt, Kirk R. Early Settlers of Bay St. George. 2nd ed. Whitby, ON: Boonen Books, 2007. Print.

Volume of a Book:
Add the volume number after the title, and after the edition.

Parsons, Robert. Lost at Sea. Vol. 2. St. John's: Creative Publishers, 1992. Print.

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ARTICLES

Journal Article (Print):
"Print" refers to journals published in paper format.

Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Cox, Gordon. "A Newfoundland Christmas Caroling Tradition." Folk Music Journal 3.3 (1977): 242-60. Print.

Journal Article (Article Index):
If you accessed the article using one of the Library's Article Indexes (e.g. Wilson Omnifile, Art Index, Academic Search Premier).

Author. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): Pages. Name of Article Index. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Thomas, Gerald. "Functions of the Newfoundland Outhouse." Western Folklore 48.3 (1989): 221-43. JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2008.

Journal Article (Internet):
Author. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): Pages. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Lackenbauer, Whitney P. "War, Memory, and the Newfoundland Regiment at Gallipoli." Newfoundland and Labrador Studies 15.2
     (1999): 176-214. Web. 6 Sept. 2009.

Newspaper Article (Print):
Author. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper Day Mon. Year: Pages. Medium.

Hudson, Catherine. "Sunken Boat Discovered in Deer Lake." Western Star [Corner Brook] 16 Oct. 2009: 3. Print.

Newspaper Article (Article Index):
If you accessed the article using one of the Library's Article Indexes (e.g. Factiva, CBCA Complete).

Author. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper Day Mon. Year: Pages. Name of Article Index. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Pitts, Gordon. "The Fishery is Dead; Long Live the Fishery." Globe and Mail 18 Feb. 2008: B3. CBCA Complete. Web. 27 Aug. 2009.

Article in a Web Magazine:
Author. "Title of Article." Name of Magazine. Name of Publisher, Day Mon. Year: Pages. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Moher, Frank. "Son of the Rock." Backofthebook.ca: Canada's Online Magazine. Single Lane Media, 11 Oct 2008: n.pag.
     Web. 14 Jan. 2009.

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WEBSITES

Entire Website:
Author Lastname, Firstname (if available). Name of Site. Name of institution/organization affiliated with site (sponsor or publisher),
     date site was created (if available). Medium. Date you accessed it.

Folk Arts Society: Living our Traditions. The Folk Arts Society, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.

Page/Document on a Website:
Author (if available). "Title of Page." Name of Site. Name of institution/organization affiliated with site (sponsor or publisher),
     date (if available). Medium. Date you accessed it.

Rose, Crystal. "How to Write Citations and Bibliographies in MLA Style (7th Edition)." Memorial University Libraries. Memorial
     University of Newfoundland, 12 Dec. 2011. Web. 9 Jan. 2012.

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OTHER

Class Lecture  | Class Notes on Course Website  | Coursepack  | Dictionary/Encyclopedia  | Dissertation/Thesis  | Government Document  | Graphic Novel  | Interview  | Movie

Class Lecture:
Instructor's Lastname, Firstname. Course Name and Number. University name, Location. Day Mon. Year. Medium.

Lewis, Robert. Folklore 2230: Newfoundland Society and Culture. Memorial University, St. John's, NL. 5 Feb. 2011. Class lecture.

Class Notes on Course Website (D2L or My Grenfell):
Instructor's Lastname, Firstname. Course Name and Number. University, Day Mon. Year. (if available). Medium. Date you accessed it.

Dalton, Mary. ENGL 3155: Newfoundland Literature. Memorial University, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2012.

Coursepack:
If you need to cite a source from a custom course package, here are two suggestions from SFU's MLA Citation Guide. However, it's best to first check with the course instructor.

1. Find the full citation where the article, chapter, etc. was originally published and cite accordingly. The full citations MAY be included in the coursepack. If not, search the library's catalogue or article indexes, Google Scholar, or ask a librarian.

2. Treat the coursepack as an anthology and the course instructor as compiler:

     Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title." Title of Coursepack. Comp. Instructor's Firstname Lastname. Course
          name and number (if it's not apparent from coursepack title). University, Location.
          Semester. Pages. Medium.

     Pittman, Al. "Becky's Waltz." Newfoundland Literature. Comp. Marc Thackray. English 2155. Memorial University,
          Corner Brook, NL. Winter 2009. N. pag. Print.

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Print):
For commonly used or well-known reference books, do not give full publication information; only provide edition and year of publication.

Author (if available). "Title of Entry." Dictionary/Encyclopedia Name. Ed. Editor's name. Edition. Volume. Year of Publication. Medium.

Jamieson, Donald C. "I Saw the Fight for Confederation." The Book of Newfoundland. Ed. Joseph R. Smallwood. Vol. 3. 1967. Print.

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Online):
Author (if available). "Title of Entry." Dictionary/Encyclopedia Name. Name of institution/organization affiliated with site
     (sponsor or publisher). Date of Publication. Medium. Date you accessed it.

"Moose." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. 2009. Web. 29 Feb. 2009.

Dissertation or Thesis (Print):
Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Dissertation/Thesis." Diss. Name of University, Year. Medium.

Breslin, Samantha. "Living with Music: An Ethnography of Sessions in St. John's, Newfoundland." Diss. Memorial University of
     Newfoundland, 2011. Print.

Government Document, Canadian (Print):
Country or Province. Name of Government Agency. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Newfoundland and Labrador. Dept. of Tourism, Culture, and Recreation. A Cultural Policy for Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, NL:
     Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Dept. of Tourism, Culture and Recreation, 2002. Print.

Government Document, Canadian (Internet):
Country or Province. Name of Government Agency. "Title of Document." Name of Website. Name of institution/organization affiliated
     with site, document date. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Canada. Dept. of Canadian Heritage. "Meeting the Sovereign and Members of the Royal Family." Canadian Heritage. Canada. Dept. of
     Canadian Heritage, 14 Oct. 2010. Web. 12 Dec. 2011.

Graphic Novel:
Many graphic novels are created through collaboration. Begin the entry with the name of the person whose contribution is most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person's role. List other collaborators after the title in the order in which they appear on the graphic novel's title page, also identifying their roles. For a graphic novel created entirely by one person, cite it like a book with one author.

Miller, Frank, writer. Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. Illustrated by Klaus Janson. Colored by Lynn Varley. Lettered by John
     Costanza. New York: DC Comics, 1997. Print.

Interview:
Name of person interviewed. Type of interview (Personal interview, Telephone interview). Date of interview Day Mon. Year.

Smith, John. Personal interview. 12 Nov. 2010.

Movie:
Title. Dir. Director's name. Name of Studio/Production Company/Distributor, year. Medium.

Down to the Dirt. Dir. Justin Simms. Newfoundland Films Inc, 2008. Film.

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Useful Guides

Didn't find the example you needed? Check out the following guides for more specific information or for citing other types of sources:

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America,
     2009. Print.
     (Available at the Library in the Reference section and on Reserve: Call number LB 2369 M53 2009)

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed. New York: Modern Language Association of
     America, 2008. Print.
     (Available at the Library in the Reference section and on Reserve: Call number PN 147 A28 2008)

Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab)