APA Style Quick Guide

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Citations within the Text of your PaperYouTube VideoYouTube Video

APA Style uses brief citations within the text of a paper when referring to a source. The brief citation gives the author(s) and year of the source in parentheses, allowing readers to locate the full citation in your reference list at the end of your paper.

Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003)
Kessler (2003) found that early onset results in a more persistent and severe course

When reproducing a direct quote, include the specific page number(s). You are encouraged to include page numbers when paraphrasing.

Svanum and Aigner (2011) found "students who did well were prone to view the course more positively" (p. 676).
"students who did well were prone to view the course more positively" (Svanum & Aigner, 2011, p.676)

No page numbers? Many online sources do not have page numbers. For direct quotes, use a paragraph number, or cite the heading and the number of paragraphs following it.

(Basu & Jones, 2007, para. 4)
(Verbunt, Pernot, & Smeets, 2008, Discussion section, para. 1)

No author? Use the first few words of the title instead. Within parentheses, use quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page; Italicize the name of a journal, newspaper, magazine, or book.

("Study Finds", 2007)
(College Bound Seniors, 2008, pp. 42-3)

No date? If the date cannot be determined, use the abbreviation "n.d." for "no date".

(Strickland, n.d.)

Citing Multiple Authors in the TextYouTube Video

2 authors: Cite both last names every time you reference it in your text.

Kozma and Stones (1983) demonstrated
as has been shown (Kozma & Stones, 1983)

3-5 authors: The first time you cite it, include all the last names. If you cite the same source again, you can use the abbreviation “et al.” which is Latin for “and others”.

1st in-text citation:
According to Maqsood, Benjakul, and Soottawat (2013)

Subsequent in-text citations:
Maqsood et al. (2013)

6 or more authors: You can use “et al.” every time you cite the source in your text.

Steeves et al. (2012) found that
has been shown (Steeves et al., 2012)


For more information on citing sources within your paper, see pp. 174-79 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.