Class Lecture

Unpublished works that cannot be retrieved by readers (e.g. emails, class lectures, presentations) are cited as “personal communication” and are only cited in the text of your paper, not in your reference list.

In-Text Citation only:

(Author, A. A., personal communication, Month day, year)

       (Buckle, J., personal communication, January 15, 2019)

Powerpoint or Lecture Notes Posted on a Course Site

If the information is posted on a course site (e.g. Brightspace, or Library’s Course Resources site) that the audience you are writing for has access to, such as your Instructor or fellow students, provide the name of the site and it’s URL. Your Instructor is the author. If there is no formal title, include a description in square brackets.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of lecture

or [Description]. Name of Site. Login

page URL.

Bodner, J. (2019, November 6). [PowerPoint

slides on fieldwork]. Brightspace.


Dictionary/Encyclopedia Entry

If no author is available, begin with the title, followed by the date. Provide the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a hyperlink if it has one. If accessed through a library database, do not include URL or database name. If accessed through the internet, include a non-database URL. If an online source has no page numbers, leave that out.

Author, A. A. if available. (Year). Title of entry.

In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of dictionary/

encyclopedia (pp. page #s). Publisher/s.

DOI or URL if applicable

Roesch, S. (2006). Coping mechanisms. In Y.

K. Jackson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of

multicultural psychology. Sage

Publications. http://doi.org/10.4135/


Facial expression. (2007). In G. R. VandenBos

(Ed.), APA dictionary of psychology (pp.

362-363). American Psychological


Dissertation or Thesis (Print)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis

[Unpublished doctoral dissertation OR

master's thesis]. Name of University.

Knight, J. C. (2011). The association of

continuity of family physician care with

health care services utilization and costs

in Newfoundland and Labrador

[Unpublished doctoral dissertation].

Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Dissertation or Thesis (From a library database)

If accessed through the library, include the publication number and the database name. Do not include a URL.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis

(Publication No. #) [Doctoral dissertation

OR master’s thesis, University Name].

Database Name. 

Rusch, L. C. (2010). Depression stigma

reduction: The impact of models of

depression on stigma and treatment

seeking (Publication No. 3373881)

[Doctoral dissertation, University of

Wisconsin-Milwaukee]. ProQuest

Dissertations and Theses Global.

Dissertation or Thesis (Online)

If accessed through an online repository, digital archive or other open-access source, include the source name and URL.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis

[Doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis,

University Name]. Source. URL

Sadatcharam, K. (2019). Assessing potential

applications of multi-coil and multi-

frequency electromagnetic induction

sensors for agricultural soils in western

Newfoundland [Master’s thesis, Memorial

University of Newfoundland]. Memorial

University Research Repository.




Quotations from people you interviewed (i.e. research participants) are not cited in your reference list and also differ from how “personal communications” are cited. State in the text of your paper that the quotation is from someone you interviewed. When quoting a research participant, abide by any ethical agreements about confidentiality or anonymity. See p.278 of the APA Manual for more information.


Gordon Pennell, a life-long resident of Corner Brook, was interviewed in his home about what it was like growing up on the west side during the late 1950s and 1960s. Mr. Pennell described “rock fights” between children from the Country Road neighbourhood and children “from the other side of the brook.”

Movies or TV Shows

It is not necessary to specify how you watched it (e.g. streaming or DVD). For movies, the director is the author. For an episode of a TV show, the writer and the director are the authors. Specify their role in brackets after their name. If more than one production company is listed, include them all, separated by semi-colons.


Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of release).

Title [Film]. Production Company/


Cheney, I. (Director). (2018). The most

unknown [Film]. Science Sandbox;

Motherboard; Sandbox Films (II); Vice


Episode of a TV Show:

Writer, W.W. (Writer), & Director, D. D.

(Director). (Year, Month day). Title of

episode (Season #, Episode#) [TV series

episode]. In Producer, P. P. & Producer, P. P.

(Executive Producers), Title of TV series.

Production Company.

Verdecchia, R. (Writer & Director). (2019,

November 2). Be afraid: The science of

fear (Season 59, Episode 6) [TV series

episode]. In Henderson, G., & Henderson,

S. (Executive Producers), The nature of

things. CBC.


List the host as the author. Include episode number if it has one. You may use a shortened URL generated by a link shortener. Either the long or short URL is acceptable. If URL is unknown (accessed through an app) leave out the URL.

Author, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month day). Episode

title (No. #) [Audio podcast episode]. In

Podcast title. Publisher. URL

O’Reilly, T. (Host). (2018, August 31). How some

grocery store mirrors nudge you toward

healthier choices [Audio podcast episode].

In Under the influence. CBC Radio.


Report By Government Agency Or Other Organization

Include a report number if it has one. If the author and publisher are the same, leave out publisher name to avoid repetition. You may use a shortened URL generated by a link shortener. Either the long or short URL is acceptable.

Government Department/Organization/

Committee. (Year, Month day). Title of

document or report. (Report no. #).

Publisher. URL

Newfoundland and Labrador Department of

Health and Community Services. (2009,

June). Newfoundland and Labrador

gambling prevalence study.




Didn't find the example you were looking for? Librarians are happy to help! Visit us in person, ask us, or live chat with us. Copies of the complete Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.) are also available at our libraries in Reference or on Reserve. Call Number: BF 76.7 P83 2020