Chicago Author-Date References Style

Citations Within the Text of your Paper

In Chicago Author-Date References Style, when information is quoted or referred to in your paper, a citation in parenthesis (including author's last name, date, and the page number if needed) is given to identify the source of the quotation or information.

"The spread of electric lights through rural Newfoundland was destined to be slow and uneven" (O'Flaherty 2005, 218).

No author? Use the title instead. If the title is 5 words or longer, use a short form of the title. Short titles should be 1-4 keywords from the original title, leaving out "A" or "The" at the beginning. Titles should be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks, depending on how they are referenced in your reference list.

(Around the World 1909)
("Aristotle's Protrepticus" 1965, 42)

No date? Use "n.d." to indicate no date.

No page numbers? If there are no page numbers, identify the location of a quotation by adding a description (like a paragraph number, heading, or section description).

At the end of the paper, include all of the works you cited in a reference list arranged alphabetically by authors' last name; the reference list may also include works that you consulted but did not cite.

Citing Multiple Authors in the Text

2-3 authors:
(Ward and Burns 2007, 99-100)
(Heatherton, Fitzgilroy, and Hsu 2008)

4 or more authors:
(Barnes et al. 2008, 118-19)