Chicago Notes-Bibliography Style

In notes-bibliography style, when information is quoted or referred to in a paper, you insert a superscript number that directs the reader to a note that contains the citation information (see: inserting footnotes and endnotes using MS Word).

Example of in-text citation:
According to O'Flaherty, "the spread of electric lights through rural Newfoundland was destined to be slow and uneven."1

Notes: The footnote or endnote identifies the source of the quotation or information. The format and content of footnotes and endnotes are the same. It is the location of the note in your paper that determines whether it is an footnote or an endnote. Footnotes are placed at the "foot", or bottom, of the same page where the information is quoted or referred to; are separated from the text of the paper by a short line; and let the reader refer to your citation without having to flip to the back of the paper. Endnotes are placed at the end of your paper with the heading "NOTES". Each note should be single spaced, with one line between notes.

       1. Patrick O'Flaherty, Lost Country: The Rise and Fall of Newfoundland, 1843-1933 (St. John's, NL: Long Beach Press, 2005), 218.

Bibliography: Usually, a bibliography is also included at the end of the paper. The bibliography is the full list of works used to write the paper; it may include works that you consulted but did not cite. It is arranged alphabetically by authors' last name. Each entry is single spaced, with double-spacing between entries (Some instructors may prefer double-spacing throughout).

Shortened Notes

If you’ve cited a source once and need to cite it again, you can use a shortened citation in your footnote/endnote. A shortened citation is just the authors last name, a shortened title, and the page number. If your title is 5 or more words long, use a shortened title. A shortened title uses one or two keywords from the original title.

       2. Kirk R. Butt, Early Settlers of Bay St. George, 2nd ed. (Whitby, ON: Boonen Books, 2007), 29.
       3. Gene Allen, Making National News: A History of Canadian Press (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012), 30.
       4. Butt, Early Settlers, 54.


Previous editions of The Chicago Manual of Style allowed for the use of "Ibid." when a note referred to a source directly above. The 17th edition discourages the use of "Ibid." in favour of shortened notes.