Websites, Social Media & Blogs


Include as much of the following information as you can. The word website or web page may be added in parenthesis if the source is unclear.

       18. Author, “Title" or Description of web page, Title or Owner/Sponsor of Website, date of publication or last revision/modification, URL.

       19. Jenny Higgins, “Women’s Suffrage,” Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage, 2008,

       20. Olaf U. Janzen, “Beothuk and Mi’kmaq,” Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland (website), last modified January 13, 2014,

Chicago Style recommends only citing websites in notes.

No author?

If there is no person or organization obviously identified as the author, start with the title of the webpage or document instead.

       21. “Newfoundland Government Rejects Environmental Impact Statement for Nickel Plant,” Mining Watch Canada, November 28, 2008,

No date?

If there is no date available, use the date that you accessed the webpage.

       22. Kathy Kaufield and Alain Bosse, "Atlantic Lobster Food Service Guide," Lobster Council of Canada (website), accessed March 11, 2020,

Social Media Posts

Retain a copy of the social media content cited, in case your cited post gets deleted. Social Media citations can often be limited to the text:

Local news organization VOCM's Question of the Day on Twitter was "With provincial vaccination rates nearing 80 percent, are you comfortable and ready to head back into the workplace?" (@VOCMNEWS, September 14, 2021).

If it is important to provide a link, you may include a note. If only a screen name is known, use the screen name in place of an author's name.


       23. Author's Real Name (@Username), "Up to the first 160 characters of the post, including spaces," Site Name and description if it is a photo or video, Month day, year of post, URL.

       24. Archives and Special Collections, Queen Elizabeth II Library, MUN (@MUNarchivesandspecialcollections), "JR Smallwood, Clara (Oates) Smallwood and their baby. Probably Ramsey. From the JR Smallwood backlog," Facebook photo, September 13, 2020,


Chicago Style recommends only citing social media posts in the text or in notes.

YouTube Videos


       25. BBC Ideas, "The Quiet Power of Introverts," YouTube video, 3:42, January 28, 2020,


Chicago Style recommends only citing in notes.

Blog Posts

Blog posts are cited like online newspaper articles. The word blog may be added in parenthesis after the blog title.

       26. Constantina Katsari, “Ancient Artifacts from the Erotic Museum in Paris,” Love of History (blog), February 9, 2015,


Like newspaper articles, Chicago Style recommends only citing blog posts in notes.