Turabian Author-Date Style

Citations Within the Text of your Paper

In the Turabian Author-Date Style, when information is quoted or referred to in your paper, a citation in parenthesis (including author's last name, date, and page number) is given to identify the source of the quotation or information, along with a corresponding reference list.

According to one scholar, "The railroads had made Chicago the most important meeting place between East and West" (Cronon 1991, 92-93).

No author? Use a shortened title instead. Shortened titles are composed of up to 4 distinctive words from the original title, leaving out "A" or "The" at the beginning. Titles should be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks, depending on how they are referenced in your reference list.

(Around the World 1909)
("Aristotle's Protrepticus" 1965, 42)

No date? Use "n.d." to indicate no date.

(Smith, n.d., 5)

Citing Multiple Authors in the Text

2-3 authors:
(Ward and Burns 2007, 99-100)
(Heatherton, Fitzgilroy, and Hsu 2008)

4 or more authors:
(Barnes et al. 2008, 118-19)

Source Quoted in Another Source

When you find a citation within a source you are using, for example if you are reading an article by Sung and Mayer (2012) and they cite Clark (2001), it is preferable to locate and cite the original source (in this case, Clark). If you cannot locate the original source:

In-text citation

Give only the name, year, and page number of the original author/source:
(Clark, 2001, 42)

Reference List

Clark, R. E. 2001. Learning from Media.

Greenwich: Information Age Publishing,

42. Quoted in Eunmo Sung and Richard

E. Mayer, “Students’ Beliefs About Mobile

Devices Vs. Desktop Computers in

South Korea and the United States,”

Computers and Education 59 (2012):