Turabian Author-Date Style

Citations Within the Text of your Paper

In the Turabian Author-Date Style, when information is quoted or referred to in your paper, a citation in parenthesis (including author's last name, date, and page number) is given to identify the source of the quotation or information, along with a corresponding reference list.

Example:
According to one scholar, "The railroads had made Chicago the most important meeting place between East and West" (Cronon 1991, 92-93).

No author? Use a shortened title instead. Shortened titles are composed of up to 4 keywords from the original title, leaving out "A" or "The" at the beginning. Titles should be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks, depending on how they are referenced in your reference list.

(Around the World 1909)
("Aristotle's Protrepticus" 1965, 42)

No date? Use "n.d." to indicate no date.

(Smith, n.d., 5)

Citing Multiple Authors in the Text

2-3 authors:
(Ward and Burns 2007, 99-100)
(Heatherton, Fitzgilroy, and Hsu 2008)

4 or more authors:
(Barnes et al. 2008, 118-19)