Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style

In Turabian notes-bibliography style, when information is quoted or referred to in a paper, you insert a superscript number that directs the reader to a note that contains the citation information (inserting footnotes and endnotes using MS Word).

Example of In-Text Citation:
"In 1879, Rodolphe Lindt of Berne, Switzerland, produced chocolate that melted on the tongue."1

Notes: A footnote or endnote can be used to identify the source of the quotation or information. Footnotes are placed at the "foot", or bottom, of the same page where the information is quoted or referred to; are separated from the text of the paper by a short line; and let the reader refer to your citation without having to flip to the back of the paper. Endnotes are placed at the end of your paper with the heading "Notes". Each note should be single spaced, with one line between notes.

       1. Linda K. Fuller, Chocolate Fads, Folklore & Fantasies: 1,000+ Chunks of Chocolate Information (New York: Haworth Press, 1994), 54.

Bibliography: Usually, notes refer to citations listed in the bibliography at the end of the paper. The bibliography is the full list of works used to write the paper; it may include works that you consulted but did not cite, and is arranged alphabetically by authors' name. Each entry is single spaced, with double-spacing between entries (Some instructors may prefer double-spacing throughout).

Shortened Notes

If you’ve cited a source once and need to cite it again, you can use a shortened form in your footnote/endnote. A shortened note can be author-only or author-title. Author-only is just the author's last name and the page number. Author-title is the author's last name, a shortened title, and the page number. A shortened title is composed of up to 4 distinctive words from the full title, in either italics or quotation marks depending on how it is cited in the bibliography.

       2. Author Last Name, page number.

       3. Author Last Name, Shortened Title or "Title", page number.


If you cite a source and then cite it again in the very next note, you may use "ibid.” which is short for the Latin “in the same place”, followed by the page number if the page number is different. Only use ibid. if it refers to the source directly above it. If the page number is also the same, you don’t need to repeat the page number.

       4. Fuller, Chocolate Fads, 54.
       5. Ibid., 56.
       6. Ibid.